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Identity record

Country map with highlighted region
  • Capital city

  • Coffee area

  • Average farm area

  • Geography

    A wide diversity of mountainous
  • Harvest period

    October - January
  • Secondary harvest

    May - June
  • Number of coffee growers

  • Number of people living from the coffee industry

  • Number of harvests per year

  • Bag production per year

  • Main varieties

    Bourbon, Castillo, Catimor, Caturra, Cenicafe, Colombia, Geisha, Tabi, Typica

Coffee production areas

Click on the area you want to observe

Harvest periods

Harvest period

Secondary harvest


The coffee sector from the country

The sectorGeographyMain actorsExport Ports

The sector

 Colombia produces exclusively Arabica, because Robusta is neither supported nor authorized by the Colombian Coffee Growers Federation, the FNC. This means we cannot export Robusta because there can be no certificate of origin, and because no phytosanitary rules have been established for this type of coffee. Coffee production is the main source of employment in rural areas. 

The coffee-growing regions are mountainous areas. 90% of producers have very small plantations (0.80 hectares on average). The average age of a grower is 53. Many producers practice mixed farming to diversify their income (chickens, eggs, etc.). Numerous local associations and cooperatives have been set up to help growers through the various stages of the supply chain: growing, harvesting, post-harvest processing, transport, packaging, projects and certification.  


Colombia is located at the north-western tip of South America and covers an area of 1,141,748 km². It is bordered by the Pacific and Atlantic coasts. It is crossed from north to south by the Andes mountain range, which divides into three branches near its southern end: the Cordillera Occidental, the Cordillera Central and the Cordillera Oriental. To the east of the Cordillera Oriental lie the Orinoco river, the Llanos plain and the Colombian Amazon. Colombia’s other mountain ranges include the Serranía del Baudó and the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta. Six of their summits stand higher than 5,000 metres. The different climates are determined by the amount of rainfall. In the plains and lowlands (situated at an altitude of less than 500 metres), the average temperature is 25 °C. The mountains and valleys located at altitudes of over 500 metres have a wide diversity of climates. They can be very humid, rainy, dry, and even very dry. The country’s size and geographical diversity partly explain the great aromatic diversity and the different harvest periods. 

Main actors

 The Federación Nacional de Cafeteros de Colombia (FNC) was set up in 1927. It has played a determining role in the development, organization and promotion of Colombian coffee. Since its creation, a tax has been introduced for coffee exports known as the coffee contribution, which is managed by the FNC. It currently stands at USD 0.06 per pound exported. The Fondo Nacional del Café national coffee fund (FoNC) was founded in 1940. It is managed by the FNC and renewed every 10 years.

Export Ports

Buenaventura (Pacific ocean)

Cartagena (Carribean sea)

Santa Marta (Atlantic Ocean)

Belco, Colombia

We set up our Armenia branch in 2021, and it now employs 5 people: Diego, our Branch and Sourcing Manager, Monica, our Field Agricultural Engineer, César, our Quality Manager and Q Grader, Maria Silvia, our Marketing and Sales Support Manager, and Kevin, our Quality Assistant. Having a branch at origin is essential for Belco. It allows us to source coffees directly from producers and to choose them based on our customers’ needs. We are also on hand to help farmers with agroforestry, post-harvest processing and quality improvement and to support their transition to more sustainable farming practices. And it is easier for us to set up innovative environmental and social projects and to perform additional quality controls.  

Photo of sourcer

Sourcer's word

Our Belco Colombia team has developed activities that effectively and efficiently include everyone involved in the value chain, from the farm and producers through to coffee export. Our aim is to generate value and cultivate special relationships built on trust, that will develop and grow stronger over time. We have set up projects, programmes, training, coaching, knowledge-sharing initiatives, academic conferences, field visits, cuppings, internal (for our colleagues) and external (for our customers) visits in different regions, all in the name of Belco. 2021 has been a year rich in learning and experiences, which are helping us to develop our brand. Our branch is a useful platform for gaining a foothold in the Andean region, as a producer of specialty coffee in Colombia, Peru, Ecuador, Bolivia and Venezuela. Belco Colombia has been responsible for sourcing, quality and transition activities for these origins since 2022. 

Diego Zamora, Belco Branch Manager in Armenia.  

The producers

Coffees product in Colombia

Our other coffee origins